It is a colorless liquid which is also known as the antine extract and methanoic acid. It is the simplest member of the carboxylic acid group, which was first obtained in the fifteenth century by the mass distillation of dead ants, then in 1855 a French chemist synthesized it using carbon monoxide.
This method is the same as the one used today and its lexical root is derived from the Latin name of the ant. In addition to the ant, it is found in bee stings and the major biting compound in the nettle leaves.
The properties of this material can be said to be well mixed with water and more polar organic solvents, and to some extent soluble in hydrocarbons. In the gas phase, the hydrogen bond between formic acid molecules leads to a deviation from the gas law, and in liquid and solid state Includes an unlimited network of hydrogen bonded molecules.
This simple member of the carboxylic acid group is the only member that has the ability to participate in increasing reactions with alkanes, which results in the production of fermet esters.
Formic acid in the presence of two substances sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid in the reaction that participates in the formation of larger carboxylic acids.
Formic acid applications in the industry:
In the textile industry, in order to stabilize the color on the fibers, staining of natural fibers, synthetic, wool and nylon and neutralizing the alkaline solution during the washing of the fabric is used.
In livestock farms, in order to keep and antibacterial in the winter, livestock is used and the digestive tract is facilitated.
The tanning industry is used to disinfect and neutralize lime when raw to peel.
Spreading some of this acid on freshly dried grass leads to preventing its corrosion and maintains its nutrients to a degree.
This acid has high acidity and should be used with gloves and masks when working with this material.